Zooneses: Diseases Passable From Dogs To Humans

Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, even the dog can be affected by these diseases, and consequently transmit them to humans. In this article we will discover together what the most common zoonoses of dog are and what methods can be implemented to prevent them.

Zoonoses or diseases that animals transmit to humans


Dogs are an integral part of the lives of millions of people around the world. For many their dogs are real family members with whom there is a wonderful relationship. However, this often leads to deleterious behaviors that endanger the mental and physical health of the dog, in fact humanizing the dog is an error often committed involuntarily by many masters.

The consequences of this humanization of the dog are often found in inappropriate behavior such as feeding the dog with food suitable for man but deleterious for the dog or satisfying any whim of the dog until it becomes dominated. However, there are other dangerous aspects in the relationship between dogs and human beings and they are in serious risk that these beautiful animals can contract diseases that can be transmitted to humans. In medicine these diseases have been called zoonoses, and are a serious problem especially in the case of animals that are used for human nutrition. Nevertheless, many pets can transmit serious diseases to humans, and dogs are not less, so it is good to be informed in this regard.

The main diseases that dogs transmit to humans

There are many zoonoses that dogs can transmit to humans. The range of these diseases is vast and includes parasitosis and diseases of viral and bacterial nature. Below we will describe only the main zoonoses that most affect the dog.


Canine rabies is transmissible to humans. Rabies is certainly one of the most famous canine zoonoses. It is a very dangerous disease that the dog transmits to other dogs or to humans through the bite. It affects the warm-blooded animals and is viral in nature. It consists of a strong inflammation of the brain, and the first symptoms include fever and itching in the area of ​​infection. Subsequently, the symptoms worsen and are found: violent movements, uncontrolled emotions, the fear of water, the inability to move parts of the body, confusion and loss of consciousness. When these symptoms appear, it usually comes to death. In some parts of the world it is still a serious danger but in the U.S. it has now been eradicated. However it is always advisable to vaccinate our four-legged friends, considering that in some parts of Europe this danger still exists.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease is transmissible to humans. Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease of a bacterial nature, which cannot be transmitted to humans directly by the dog, but from a parasite that often infests this animal: the tick. The first symptom of the disease is a reddening that starts from the place of the sting and gradually extends. Generally this redness does not cause itching or pain and in 25% of cases it does not appear at all.

Other initial symptoms may include fever, headache, and a feeling of tiredness. If not treated promptly, it may present this symptom: loss of ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pain, severe headache with stiffness of the neck, heart palpitations.

Despite treatment, around 10-20% of people develop joint pain, memory problems and feel tired most of the time. The carriers of this disease are ticks of the genus Ixodes, which must however remain attached to the host at least 36-48 hours before transferring the bacteria. Obviously to avert the infection it is essential to take all measures to prevent tick infestations, then use repellents and pesticides for dogs.

Canine scabies

Canine scabies is transmissible to humans. Sarcoptic scabies or canine scabies are caused by a Sarcoptes canis mite that penetrates under the host’s skin and causes severe skin irritations that can become infected and cause the hair to fall off. Fortunately, canine scabies does not survive more than two weeks on humans because the main host is the dog, so on humans it is transitory and usually not even a pharmaceutical treatment is necessary. The contagion occurs above all with the direct contact between human and animal. For better health outcomes you can try combining medical treatment with home remedies scabies are sensitive to. Discover more about scabies home remedies at https://www.besthomeremedies.com/home-remedies-for-scabies.html.


Dermatophytosis is transmissible to humans. Dermatophytosis or ringworm is a skin infection caused by a fungus (Microsporum). The symptoms of this disease consist in the formation of patches of round hairless on dog’s fur. This fungal infection can easily be transmitted from the dog to humans. To prevent infection, it is advisable to wash hands and all the areas that have come into contact with the infected dog with antibacterial soap. It is not a worrisome disease so if your dog contracted it, just contact the vet who will prescribe an appropriate therapy. In case you have been infected, contact the doctor who will recommend an ointment which will solve the problem in a very short time.


Ascarids are transmissible to humans. The ascarids are parasitic worms of the family of nematodes, also called cylindrical worms and often infect the digestive system of dogs. They can prove to be very dangerous, causing damage to various organs such as the eyes, which can also lead to blindness.

The danger comes from the feces of infected animals, in fact when they defecate in the gardens, the eggs of these worms infest the soil and it is from the ground that humans can contract the parasite.

Children in particular, love to play outdoors in direct contact with the ground and, especially the smaller ones who have not yet learned the basic hygiene rules, they usually put their hands in their mouths without washing them. Just by doing this they can accidentally ingest some of the roundworm eggs.

If these ascarids are of the genus Toxocara, the worms that hatch will be able to cross the visceral wall and go around reaching the other organs, this phenomenon is called a syndrome called larva migrans or toxocariasis.  The worms dispersed throughout the body remain alive for a few weeks causing extensive damage to the various organs affected. Sometimes these worms can also reach the eyes, causing loss of vision for days or weeks and causing other symptoms such as: red eyes, white pupil, fixed pupil, retinal fibrosis, retinal detachment, inflammation of ocular tissues, retina granulomas and strabismus.

Unfortunately, the disease is asymptomatic and when the first disorders are perceived, it means that the affected organs have already been damaged. The best way to avert the risk of being infected by ascarids is to regularly give dogs to dogs and teach children the basic rules of hygiene such as washing their hands constantly after playing in the garden or in any case not putting their hands in their mouths while play. Keep in mind that the greatest risks are when the puppies are infected and not the adult dogs, it is also important to know that potentially any surface can be a source of contagion, so not only the soil, also because often the flies that feed of feces act as a vector.


Salmonellosis (view disease info on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonellosis) is an infection caused by the salmonella bacteria. Usually infected people show the following symptoms: diarrhea, fever, vomiting and abdominal cramps from 12 to 72 hours after infection.

In most cases, the disease lasts four to seven days and many people recover without treatment. It is usually contracted by eating poultry or infected and uncooked beef. But the bacterium can also be present in fish, milk and even vegetables. Reptiles are also famous vectors of this disease, but what many ignore is that it can also be transmitted by dogs. In fact, dogs are particularly resistant to these bacteria so to get sick they have to ingest a greater number of bacteria than humans, however the infection happens, even these (like all others, including humans) can act as a container of the bacterium and infect other living beings.

Usually dogs with salmonellosis have the following symptoms: high fever (40º-41º), abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration. If these or other symptoms occur, it is necessary to promptly contact the vet who will prescribe the right therapy. To avoid infection, just follow the normal rules of hygiene and wash your hands with antibacterial soap after touching the infected dog. In the case of human contagion, as mentioned, everything is resolved in a few days even without specific treatments, however it is always essential to contact the attending physician.


Leptospirosis, a contagious disease that affects both animals and humans, is caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The disease is more common in tropical and developing countries where there are no adequate hygiene standards. The main vector and the rat, usually the animals and the dogs are infected by drinking water contaminated by the urine of rats or other infected animals or simply walking on the ground or contaminated mud.

The man usually infects himself through the mucous membranes or open wounds that come into contact with the infected urine of the animals, in our case of the dog. The symptoms in the dog are as follows. During the first 4-12 days after infection, the dog may have high fever, depression, vomiting, loss of appetite, conjunctivitis, and generalized pain. Within 2 days of the onset of these primary symptoms, body temperature may drop suddenly, often concurrently with a strong increase in thirst. The urine changes color and becomes lemon yellow to intense orange.

Over time there is a deep depression, difficulty breathing, muscle tremors, vomiting and bloody stools. In humans, Leptospirosis is a biphasic disease that is, it evolves into two distinct phases. The first begins suddenly with fever and chills, severe headaches and muscle pain, abdominal pain, red eyes. Symptoms appear after an incubation period of 7-12 days. The first phase ends after 3-7.

After this phase there is the disappearance of symptoms that coincides with the appearance of antibodies against Leptospira and the consequent disappearance of bacteria from the blood. This asymptomatic phase lasts about 3-4 days until the second phase that begins with another episode of fever that develops in a meningitis or the inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain. In order to prevent infection, it is important to practice the dog’s leptospirosis vaccine in addition to respecting the hygiene rules.

Priligy online at Canadian Health&Care Mall

If you were to ask a group of people what Priligy is, few if any of them would probably know this drug. However, even though few people have heard about Priligy, this is a drug that has made a huge difference in the world of healthcare and especially men’s health. Priligy is known as a very effective drug in the treatment of premature ejaculation. This article will give you all the info you need on this drug and provide some insight on how to get it. Priligy online at CanadianHealthCareMalll.Com

Priligy’s History

Like most drugs, Priligy was developed to counteract a medical condition that has few if any treatment options. However, the interesting thing about this drug is that it was developed specifically to treat depression but turned out to be something else entirely. The research and development for this drug were commissioned by the Eli Lilly pharmaceutical company, and more specifically – David Wong, the researcher who helped develop the popular antidepressant drug known as Prozac.

After Priligy was found to be ineffective in treating depression, development was cancelled for some time, until another company named PPD GenuPro decided to buy and change it in 1998 to serve another crucial purpose – treating premature ejaculation. In 2001, its rights were once again purchased by another company – ALZA Corporation. While FDA approval of the drug is pending, the drug has already been approved in many European countries, including Austria, Spain, Germany, Italy and Sweden.

How It Works

As previously mentioned, Priligy is intended for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is a health problem that millions of men suffer from, and can be described as a tendency of the man to ejaculate soon after initiating sexual activity or from minimal sexual contact. This is very damaging to most sexual relations, as both partners are rarely able to enjoy a long and fulfilling sexual experience. Unfortunately, premature ejaculation is a problem that medical researchers still know very little about.

However, certain causes or influential factors have been identified. For example, premature ejaculation may be a side effect from drugs, a symptom of prostatitis, an indication of psychological problems or mental illness, a result of a genetic predisposition or merely elevated penile sensitivity. To counteract this medical condition, Priligy inhibits serotonin transporters and setting off a complex reaction that goes all the way to the brain stem.

Staying Safe

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While it is a big help to many men, Priligy cannot be used by anyone. First of all, it is only suited to adult men between the ages of 18 and 64. Furthermore, Priligy should not be taken if you suffer from hepatic impairment, certain heart conditions, as well as anyone taking serotonin-inhibiting drugs and several others listed in the official description. Priligy is also known to cause side effects in some cases, so you would do well to read up on its specific indications and contraindications if you want to stay safe and use this drug as indicated.

Obtaining Priligy

When people make up their mind regarding whether this drug is right for them, they instantly ask the question “Where do I get it?” While popular drugs like aspirin are freely available in all developed countries, Priligy has not yet become universally accessible and is only sold in some pharmacies and countries. While this may seem problematic to those who can’t get it on their city’s streets, there is another solution to this problem. Many people are choosing to buy this drug from generic pharmacy websites and similar online services.

Prevention: Water

It is good rainy baths not to be taken straight on the body, but through a thin article of clothing. Taken in this way, the baths, the raindrops develop a special energy that affects the body favorably. Prevention

Part of the water is taken in through the skin pores. So one has to wash his face frequently and then water penetrates into the pores and part of the magnetism of the water penetrates into the skin with it. Water should be warm in order this to happen. There is a connection between the physical purity and the spiritual one.

One must at least twice a week induce sweating by drinking hot water. He will drink a few glasses of hot water, in which he can squeeze a few drops of lemon juice. When he sweats well, he will wipe his body with a damp towel and will change his clothes. Then let him drink another half or a whole cup of hot water. The clean hot water helps for releasing blood from the accumulated in it lactic and uric acid. To be healthy, one must have absolutely clean blood. Once a person improves his circulation, prana is taken in properly by the body.

In order your breathing to be full, you should open the pores of your body. This is achieved through drinking of water. Full breathing means one to breathe not only through his lungs, but also through the skin of his body. Every cell in the human body shall breathe. One, who breathes in this way, can be called a healthy person HealtCare Pharmacy.

Hands, at least three times a day, shall be washed. Legs, face, underarms shall be washed several times a day, leaving the skin slightly damp in order the remaining water to be taken in by the body and give you liveliness and freshness. Wipe, lightly, with a soft towel. Then change your clothes and thank God and after all that, you may eat or go to work.

In summer, warm the water in the sun and wash yourself by solar water. You shall take two or three baths a week. You can wash yourself partially every day and namely the face, the neck, the arms, the legs. When you perspire, you shall immediately change your clothes.

Never drink water when you are tired and sweating. Stop for a while at the spring, wait for 10-15 minutes and then drink.

If wine were a necessity for people, Nature should deliver it. Water cleans the body, and wine introduces sludge, from which one must clean himself in order the Divine energy to enter it. This energy comes in through the brain, through the heart and through the body. Once this energy enters the human body, it starts to rebuild it.

Dew drops have electricity and magnetism, which must be used wisely. Knowing this, do not shake the raindrops out of your clothes. The clean dew drop gives blessing. One, who has a strong sense of smell, feels the fragrance of the dew drops.

When you go for a walk or hike, choose to drink water that has southern exposure, because spring water, placed in such a position is full of creative energy and they are healthy. Never drink water exposed to the north, because their energy is positive.

From May till the middle of July, every day, when it rains, you shall stay out under the rain until you get wet well. Officials will use those hours when they are not at work. These rain baths cost more than mineral ones, and they are beneficial to the nervous system and to many chronic diseases. I call rain baths “baths of angels”. While taking your baths, you will pray to God to clean you through them and thank for the blessing that He sends you from Heaven. One, who can correctly take in the energies of the raindrops, has reached that primary matter, which alchemists sought. By taking these baths, you will see how well you will sleep. After the bath, you will wipe your body with a clean, dry towel. You will change your clothes, and drink a glass or two of hot water. As for the cold, you shall not have any fear. May, June, and July are full of life.

When cellular inflammation was determined by BAL eosinophils

These studies were then repeated 7 days after the allergen challenge to assess the persistence of the inflammatory reaction and to determine whether the inflammatory changes associated with changes in AHR were in the airway lumen, bronchial mucosa inflammation, or both.

Twenty-four hours after allergen challenge, there was, as expected, a significant decrease in the FEVin the majority of patients. Furthermore, AHR to methacholine increased at 24 h post allergen challenge and remained increased at 7 days (Fig 8). When cellular inflammation was determined by BAL eosinophils, a significant increase in this cell was found 24 h after allergen challenge; however, by 7 days post allergen challenge, the eosinophils in the BAL had returned to baseline levels buy Viagra Australia. In contrast, when the investigators measured procollagen-expressing cells in the bronchial biopsy specimen as a marker of airway remodeling, there was an increase in this mucosal marker 7 days after allergen challenge (Fig 9). These data suggest that the changes in AHR following allergen challenge appear to be more closely associated with structural alterations than the early recruitment of luminal eosinophils and ensuing inflammation. Although eosinophils tend to parallel these responses, they did not appear to be the causative process in this response.

Assessing the contribution to airway inflammatory events to AHR is complicated by many factors, includ-ing the method of evaluation, the measurement itself, the timing of the readout, and the susceptibility to the inflammatory determinant. For example, detection of airway inflammation is facilitated by noninvasive approaches, such as analysis of induced sputum samples. These determinants measure events in the large to midsize airways. Bronchoscopy with lavage, in contrast, provides a “cleaner” sample but requires an invasive procedure, which by itself can have effects on markers of inflammation. Both sputum and lavage samples reflect inflammation in the airway lumen, which may not fully reflect the histology of the airway wall, a location that is more likely to be a determinant of AHR.

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The structural components of the airway

Furthermore, it is also likely that the interaction of these inflammatory cells with airway tissues determines the intensity of AHR. At present, quantifying the interactive contribution of cellular elements and resident components to the overall inflammatory reaction is not readily available. Therefore, to identify the contributions of inflammation to AHR, it is important to consider the many aspects of this process, including the location of the cells (ie, lumen vs bronchial wall) and cell type as well as the many mediators associated with the injury to the airway. The present data, however, suggest that it is likely that structural changes of the airway are the greater contributor to AHR than the development of inflammation.

The structural components of the airway previously described include airway smooth muscle. There has been considerable interest in dissecting the contribution of airway remodeling and their relationship to smooth muscle and/or features of airway smooth muscle contractile responses to the presence of AHR in asthma. As noted, the measurement of AHR is characterized by excessive narrowing to contractile substances that cause no effect in normal subjects and a response at a smaller dose Viagra online Australia.

These characteristics represent two changes: an increased sensitivity and an ability of the airway smooth muscle to narrow excessively. Some believe the response to contraction at a lower dose (ie, increased sensitivity) may represent the less significant change, and it is the exaggerated airway narrowing that is more important in asthma and the resulting altered physiology. Efforts are ongoing to sort out that the contribution of airway remodeling and altered smooth muscle to AHR. Pare et al, for example, present convincing evidence that airway wall remodeling is a major contributor to the excessive airway narrowing in asthma.

These same investigators have pointed out that the excessive deposition of collagen and thickening of the airway wall could protect against excessive airway narrowing Canadian Pharmacy Online. Thus, the balance between these changes can lead to opposite effects. In contrast, Oliver et al have convincing evidence that the increased muscle mass in asthma is a dominant factor contributing to AHR.

Acoustic Rhinometry

Anterior and posterior rhinomanometry primarily differ in the location of the transducer used to measure posterior pharyngeal pressure. Anterior rhi-nomanometry may be affected by deformation of the anterior nares and/or valves, nasal cycling, and by the instrument inserted to the nares for measurement. Posterior rhinomanometry does not have Viagra Australia official site these disadvantages, but is more expensive and requires more patient cooperation, with approximately 15% of subjects being unable to place the probe properly in the oral cavity. Despite these drawbacks, it is an excellent tool for determining the degree of airflow obstruction before and after surgical procedures and medical interventions (Table 4). It may also help to distinguish functional causes of upper airway obstruction from structural causes. For example, decongestants or exercise will improve airflow due to inflammation and vascular engorgement, whereas fixed abnormalities such as concha bullosa do not change after exercise or decongestants. Rhino-manometric measurements before and after treatment with a potent intranasal decongestant agent are recommended.

Acoustic Rhinometry

Acoustic rhinometry, a technique used widely in Europe, evaluates nasal obstruction by analyzing reflected sound waves introduced through the nares. It is generally easy to perform, is noninvasive, and does not require patient cooperation like many of the other evaluation procedures. It produces an image that reflects variations in the cross-sectional dimensions of the nasal cavity and closely approximates nasal cavity volume and minimal cross-sectional area for Buy Viagra Online. The short measurement period (10 s) makes this procedure easy to use in all patients, even children. The results of parallel determinations by acoustic rhinometry and rhinoma-nometry are comparable; however, nasal airway resistance cannot be easily computed from acoustic rhinometry data. Acoustic rhinometry has been reviewed in detail elsewhere.


Asthma severity and management

Patients between the ages of 18 and 55 years, who presented to the ED between 8:00 am and midnight 7 days a week and who were assessed to be having an acute asthma exacerbation, were eligible to be included in the study. Patients with other diagnoses such as COPD and congestive heart failure were excluded.

This was a prospective study during which patients were interviewed to determine the extent of cocaine and opiate use as well as treatment modalities being administered. Approval from the hospital’s institutional review board was obtained. Informed consent was obtained from patients entering the study, which involved completing a facilitated questionnaire and providing a urine sample for drug screening (cocaine and opiates). One hundred sixteen patients were interviewed. Complete data, including urine screens, were available for 103 subjects. A research facilitator conducted the interview (Fig 1). Questions assessed prior asthma severity and management (including use of ICS and P2-agonists), as well as history of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit viagra canada drugs use. Information regarding the patient’s current presentation, ED treatment, and disposition were documented on a data collection form by the facilitator. Patients who were too ill on initial presentation to consent to the study were approached later once their condition stabilized.

Urine samples were analyzed for the presence of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine, as well as for opiates, using the Axsym system (Abbott Laboratories; Abbott Park, IL). (A cutoff value of > 300 ng/mL is considered to be a positive result for a cocaine metabolite assay by our hospital laboratory, as recommended by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.)

The prevalence of positive cocaine screens was assessed; all clinical data were entered into a database and were analyzed using computer software (SPSS for Windows, version 7.5; SPSS; Chicago, IL).


Patients were enrolled during a 7-month period (January 14, 1998, through August 25, 1998). One hundred sixty-three patients were approached to enter the study: of these, 116 patients consented to the study, completing the questionnaire and giving urine samples.

How Can I Improve My Fertility

How Can I Improve My Fertility?


A healthy diet is essential for optimal health and the reproductive system is no exception. In order for your body to function properly, a well-balanced diet, including plenty of vitamins and minerals, is necessary. Nutritional deficiencies can impair hormone function, inhibit sperm production and contribute to the production of abnormal sperm.

The general rules are to eat a natural diet with foods that focus on fresh fruit and vegetables, wholegrains, fish, poultry, beans, legumes, nuts and seeds. Eat plenty of seeds, particularly pumpkin seeds, which are naturally high in zinc and essential fatty acids, both of which are vital to the healthy functioning of the male reproductive system. Foods that are rich in zinc, such as wholegrain cereals and selenium, which is found in cereals grown in selenium-rich soil as well as in Brazil nuts and mushrooms, are also important. Drink plenty of water each day.

Eliminate processed foods, junk food and sugars, and avoid stodgy carbohydrates such as breads and cakes made with white flour. Avoid hydrogenated oils (trans-fats) and minimise your saturated fat intake; use extra virgin olive oil instead. Minimise your caffeine intake and keep your alcohol intake within safe limits.

What About Supplements?

The following supplements have been suggested to be good for the male reproductive tract. Make sure you do not exceed the daily recommended limits. Remember it is always preferable to get vitamins and minerals naturally through dietary sources rather than taking them in pill form. A multivitamin is not a substitute for a bad diet. With those provisos in mind, the following supplements may help:

  • Folic acid (400mcg/day) – women are told to take folic acid to help prevent serious birth defects like spina bifida, and men also need folic acid to maintain sperm quality.
  • The B vitamins, especially Vitamins B6 and B12. are essential for good reproductive health.
  • Vitamin C (1,000mg/day) can help prevent sperm from clumping together.
  • Zinc (15-30mg/day) – low levels of zinc can also affect sperm count and motility.
  • Selenium (55-100mcg/day), which is an antioxidant that helps protect the body from free radicals, can help increase sperm count and motility in men with a low sperm count.
  • Vitamin E (15mg/day) has been found to aid in conception.

Herbal Medicine

Herbal remedies have been used to treat male fertility. It is important to let your doctor know if you are taking any over-the-counter supplements, including herbs, as there may be potential side effects and also potential interactions with prescribed medication prednisone online pharmacy. The following herbs are sometimes taken by men to help their fertility:

  • Ginseng – known as a male tonic (an agent that improves general health)
  • Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) – used for overall male reproductive health

When to Contact Your Doctor

As couples nowadays often spend time focusing on contraception and avoiding unplanned pregnancy, there can be an assumption that pregnancy should follow as soon as a couple start ‘trying’. Nothing could be further from the truth. Indeed, we generally only recommend tests or investigations if a couple have been trying for a year with no results. It is important for the couple to recognise and discuss the emotional impact that infertility has on them as individuals and as a couple, and to seek medical help and advice from their doctor. For a man there can be the added self-esteem issues of not feeling like a ‘real man’. Professional counselling can be invaluable in helping to deal with these issues.

A cause can be determined for the majority of infertile couples and appropriate therapy can help many couples achieve their desired outcome.

Cancer – The Big C

Cancer is a serious health issue for Irish men. About one in every three Irish men will develop cancer at some stage in their lives and about one in six men will die from it. The word ‘cancer’ is often perceived as a frightening one, yet cancer is not the hopeless diagnosis it once was. Many cancers can now be prevented through the combination of a healthy lifestyle and regular check-ups. Those cancers that can be detected early can be treated before it is too late. Unfortunately, research has shown that Irish men tend to ignore warning symptoms and present late to their doctor for check-ups and medical advice. Through a combination of fear, denial, embarrassment and lack of time, men often ignore their own health, to their cost. The national cancer registry has shown that rates of common cancers in Irish men are set to increase by over 50 per cent by 2020. The four most common cancers in men are:

  • Skin cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Lung cancer
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What Is Cancer?

The basic unit in the body is the cell and we all have billions of cells in our bodies. Normally, cells divide to make more cells when the body needs to either repair existing cells or replace those that have worn out or died. This process of cell growth, repair, death and renewal is normally finely tuned and regulated. It is a continual process and helps to keep our bodies in good shape.

The main feature that all cancers have in common is a lack of regulated or proper cell growth. The inbuilt system of checks and balances breaks down. So when a cancer cell begins to grow, it multiplies out of control. If cells keep dividing when new cells are not needed, a mass of tissue forms. This mass of extra tissue is called a ‘growth’ or ‘tumour’.

Benign and Malignant Tumours

Tumours can be benign or malignant. What’s the difference? Benign tumours are not cancer and are rarely a threat to life. Cells from benign tumours do not spread to other parts of the body. They can usually be removed surgically or treated with drugs Australia Pharmacy online  and/or radiation to reduce their size and, in most cases, they do not recur. Malignant tumours are cancer. There are more than 100 different types. Cancer cells can invade and damage tissues and organs near the tumour as well as spreading to form new malignant tumours in other parts of the body. This spread of cancer is called metastasis (pronounced metastisiss). The word cancer itself comes from the Latin word for crab. This is because historically the swollen blood vessels around the area of a tumour were thought to resemble a crab’s limbs.

Young Adult Cancer Survivors

Implications for follow-up and long-term care

Today, not enough is known about the challenges facing adolescents and young adults with a history of childhood cancer, or about the strategies they may use to effectively 285-AskDrSp12address them, or about the programmes and interventions that may effectively increase knowledge about cancer and its treatment, empowerment, self-confidence and coping.

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This is in part due to the fact that follow-up care for young adult survivors of paediatric and adult-onset cancers is not consistently provided in the same setting in which they receive their cancer treatment. Oeffinger et al. report that ‘few programs focus on the long-term health care needs of adult survivors of childhood cancer. The majority of existing programs are in pediatric institutions, without significant input from adult-oriented, generalist health care providers’. Oncology professionals must consider where and when as well as how best to deliver interventions that will meet the needs of a young, developing and geographically mobile population. We need to proactively empower and prepare survivors during their treatment through the teaching of advocacy skills and we may need to bring follow-up intervention to the client, or at least provide it in settings appropriate and conducive to their needs.

Harvey et al. suggest that comprehensive and quality follow-up for long-term cancer survivors should include education in previous diagnosis, treatment Cialis in Canada online and potential late effects, with an emphasis on wellness, health maintenance and health promotion. Fertility assessment, including evaluation of survivors’ knowledge about their own reproductive capacity, and counselling should become part of that comprehensive follow-up. Young adult survivors, as well as the health and welfare professionals who care for them, may benefit from timely information and health education regarding present and future fertility, options for having a family, sexual behaviour and risks for adverse outcomes such as unplanned pregnancy or exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

As these young people age, the transition from being patients to off-treatment survivors and the taking on of new and additional responsibilities as they establish independence mean they will be faced with making their own life decisions. An important issue for adolescent and young adults is the decision of if, when and how to share information about cancer with their peers. An even more delicate issue is what and how much to say about their illness to new acquaintances and particularly to those with whom a long-term intimate relationship may be possible. Faced with the potential for varied reactions, young people with cancer may lose confidence because of their uncertainty about whether and how they will be accepted.

When loss of opportunities for social interaction with peers is severe, it is experienced as a major deprivation that multiplies other stresses of the illness. When positive interaction with peers occurs, it helps ease such stresses and renews young people’s adaptive capacities. Given that peer socialization and relationships are of great importance and concern to this young population, those who promote an advocacy framework for support are faced with the challenge of developing a skill set that will help survivors deal with stigmatization by peers and maintain friendships/relationships.